Is not being exposed to BLACK equal to
How can you ever know if:
Pr(Yw = 1 | BLACK) = Pr(Yw = 1 | WHITE)
is satisfied (i.e., no confounding present)?
Who is the counterfactual black person who
was not exposed to black race?
What would you adjust for to make
ACE = FACE?
Kaufman & Cooper AJE 1999; 150: 113
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