Market Characteristics Associated with Rural Hospitals’ Provision of Post-Acute Care

Post-acute care (PAC) in rural hospitals, particularly Critical Access Hospitals (CAHs), represents an important source of PAC access in rural areas. In addition, a rural hospital’s financial health often depends on providing services that meet local need.  Over time, some changes in Medicare payment policies have adversely affected rural providers. For example, when the Balanced… Read more »

Geographic Variation in the 2016 Profitability of Urban and Rural Hospitals

Rural hospital closures remain a worrisome issue for policy makers and communities: between 2010 and 2017, 83 rural hospitals closed. The NC Rural Health Research Program tracks these closures and studies potential predictors. Profitability is not the only predictor, but it is one of the main predictors of hospital closure. Researchers and policy makers are… Read more »

Range Matters: Rural Averages Can Conceal Important Information

Researchers often use averages to describe data.  The average (or the mean) of a data set can be used to identify the central value of the group, or what is typical. While valuable, it’s also important to understand the range of data—the highs and lows.  What might we miss by focusing on the average? When… Read more »

Differences in Community Characteristics of Sole Community Hospitals

In 1983, Congress created the Sole Community Hospital (SCH) program to support small rural hospitals for which “by reason of factors such as isolated location, weather conditions, travel conditions, or absence of other hospitals, is the sole source of inpatient hospital services reasonably available in a geographic area to Medicare beneficiaries.” A SCH is often… Read more »

Health Disparities in Appalachia

“Creating a Culture of Health in Appalachia: Disparities and Bright Spots” is an innovative research initiative that aims to identify factors that support a culture of health in Appalachian communities. “Health Disparities in Appalachia” is the first report in a series exploring health issues in Appalachia. It measures population health and documents disparities in health… Read more »

Rural-Urban Variations in Medicare Live Discharge Patterns from Hospice, 2012-2013

For the last decade-and-a-half, the proportion of patients discharged from the Medicare hospice program prior to death – known as a “live discharge” – has increased across the country with significant hospice-level geographic variations. Despite clear geographic variations in live discharge rates and known rural-urban disparities (e.g., patients of rural hospices have higher satisfaction), previous… Read more »

Regional Differences in Urban and Rural Mortality Trends

Previous research has established both that there is a gap in nationwide urban-rural mortality and that this gap is increasing over time. Existing and ongoing work has found that the urban-rural mortality gap may vary regionally. This brief builds upon previous research and explores the differences in mortality trends between urban and rural locations by… Read more »

Rural and Urban Hospitals in the United States

The table below shows the number of rural and urban hospitals in the United States as of January 1, 2016. The source of the data is the 2016 Provider of Services file produced by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services.  Hospitals are classified as rural by using the definition provided by the Federal Office… Read more »

Rural Health Snapshot (2017)

Disparities in health status and access to health care exist between people living in rural areas and those in urban areas.   The displays selected indicators of access to health care, health behavior/risk factors, and mortality rates, comparing rural to urban residents.

U.S. Hospital List (2016)

The North Carolina Rural Health Research Program produces a list of rural and urban U.S. hospitals each year.  This list includes 4,768 acute and 1,373 specialty hospitals that were reported open on January 1, 2016.